## miércoles, 29 de marzo de 2017

### Matter and Force.

5º. Unit 7.Matter and Force.

Matter is everything around you. Atoms and molecules are all composed of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. If you are new to the idea of mass, it is the amount of stuff in an object. We talk about the difference between mass and weight in another section. Matter is sometimes related to light and electromagnetic radiation.

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PROPETIES OF MATTER

Matter is everything around us. Matter is made out of tiny particles called atoms. Some atoms join together to make groups known as molecules.
Apart from its color, odor and tested, matter has other properties and can be found in three different states.
A physical property is any characteristic of matter that's observable. If you were to pick up an apple, how would you describe it? It's smooth, hard, red and tastes sweet. These are some observable properties.
In physics, the physical properties also include anything that can be measured. There are two very important physical properties:
• Volume is how much space matter takes up.
• Mass is the amount of atoms in a given object. (Atoms are the very tiny parts that make up matter, and the more there are, the more mass there is.)
It can be easy to confuse these two properties, but remember that volume is different than mass. A simplified way to think about it is that mass is weight and volume is size. Think of a brick and a large shoebox. The brick weighs more (has more mass) than the shoebox, but takes up less space (has less volume) than the shoebox.

## Common Physical Properties

As we discussed, physical properties can be observable or measurable. Let's explore some of the common types of properties in each category:

#### Observable Physical Properties

• Color
• Size
• Texture
• Shape
• Odor
• Hardness
• Physical state of matter (whether it is a liquid, solid, or gas)
• #### Measurable Physical Properties

• Volume
• Mass
• Weight
• Temperature
• Freezing point
• Boiling point
• Melting point

### Chemistry / Pure and Mixed Substances

• Matter can be classified as pure substances and mixtures.
• Pure substances contains all the molecules of same kind whereas in mixtures molecules are different.
• Mixtures can be separated using different techniques like winnowing, filtration, sedimentation, decantation, distillation .
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FORCE AND THEIR EFFECT
Everything on Earth is powered by forces, pushes and pulls which act on our bodies and the things around us. Forces make things move and stop moving.
Some of the forces we are subject to are gravity (which keeps us on the Earth's surface), the centripetal force (the force that makes things move in circles) and friction (the force which makes things stick or slide).
Simple machines work by turning small forces into larger ones, allowing us to perform tasks with more strength or speed. Examples of simple machines are levers, gears, pulleys, wheels and screws.

# What are forces?

A force can be a push or a pull. For example, when you push open a door you have to apply a force to the door. You also have to apply a force to pull open a drawer.
You cannot see a force but often you can see what it does. Forces can change the speed of something, the direction it is moving in or its shape. For example, an elastic band gets longer if you pull it.

## Gravity

All objects have a force that attracts them towards each other. This is called gravity. Even you attract other objects to you because of gravity, but you have too little mass for the force to be very strong.
Gravitational force increases when:
• the masses are bigger
• the objects are closer
Gravity only becomes noticeable when there is a really massive object like a moon, planet or star. We are pulled down towards the ground because of gravity. The gravitational force pulls in the direction towards the centre of the Earth.

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## domingo, 26 de marzo de 2017

### 6º. Unit 7.Energy

6º. Unit 7.Energy
What Is Energy?
The simplest definition of energy is "the ability to do work". Energy is how things change and move. It's everywhere around us and takes all sorts of forms. It takes energy to cook food, to drive to school, and to jump in the air.

The simplest definition of energy is "the ability to do work". Energy is how things change and move. It's everywhere around us and takes all sorts of forms. It takes energy to cook food, to drive to school, and to jump in the air.

The simplest definition of energy is "the ability to do work". Energy is how things change and move. It's everywhere around us and takes all sorts of forms. It takes energy to cook food, to drive to school, and to jump in the air.

The simplest definition of energy is "the ability to do work". Energy is how things change and move. It's everywhere around us and takes all sorts of forms. It takes energy to cook food, to drive to school, and to jump in the air.

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Forms of energy

# Kinetic Energy

Kinetic Energy is energy that is in motion. Moving water and wind are good examples of kinetic energy. Electricity is also kinetic energy because even though you can't see it happen, electricity involves electrons moving in conductors.

# Potential Energy

Energy is measured in the amount of "work" it does. Potential Energy is stored energy. Examples of potential energy are oil sitting in a barrel, or water in a lake in the mountains. This energy is referred to as potential energy, because if it were released, it would do a lot of work.
Energy can change from one form to another. A good example is a Roller Coaster. When it is on its way up, it is using kinetic energy since the energy is in motion. When it reaches the top it has potential (or stored) energy. When it goes down the hill it is using kinetic energy again.

# Other Types of Energy

There are other types of energy as well:
• Mechanical Energy is the energy of motion that does the work. An example of mechanical energy is the wind as it turns a windmill.
• Heat energy is energy that is pushed into motion by using heat. An example is a fire in your fireplace.
• Chemical Energy is energy caused by chemical reactions. A good example of chemical energy is food when it is cooked.
• Electrical Energy is when electricity creates motion, light or heat. An example of electrical energy is the electric coils on your stove.
• Gravitational Energy is motion that is caused by gravity. An example of gravitational energy is water flowing down a waterfall.
•  Light - Light is called radiant energy.The Earth gets a lot of its energy from the light of the Sun.
•  Motion - Anything that is moving has energy. This is also called kinetic energy.
• Nuclear - Huge amounts of nuclear energy can be generated by splitting atoms.

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Light

## What is light?

When we're very young, we have a very simple idea about light: the world is either light or dark and we can change from one to the other just by flicking a switch on the wall. But we soon learn that light is more complex than this.
Light arrives on our planet after a speedy trip from the Sun, 149 million km (93 million miles away). Light travels at 186,000 miles (300,000 km) per second, so the light you're seeing now was still tucked away in the Sun about eight minutes ago. Put it another way, light takes roughly twice as long to get from the Sun to Earth as it does to make a cup of coffee!

 Why are there different colours of light? There are different colours of light because they are light waves which have different wavelengths. Red light has the longest wavelength while violet light has the shortest wavelength. What are the primary colours of light? Red, green and blue are the primary colours of light. Mixing them in various ways will make all other colours, including white. What is reflection? The bouncing back of light waves when they hit an object with a very smooth and shiny surface, like a mirror, is called reflection. What is refraction? The bending of light as it passes from one transparent substance to another, like air to water, is called refraction. What makes a rainbow? When sunlight is intercepted by a drop of water in the atmosphere, some of the light refracts into the drop, reflects from the drop's inner surface, and then refracts out of the drop. The first refraction separates the sunlight into its component colours, and the second refraction increases the separation. The result is a rainbow.

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Heat

Heat Transfer
Learn about heat transfer and how to keep things warm by testing the characteristics of different materials with this fun activity for kids. Some materials are good thermal conductors, easily letting heat pass through them, while others are good thermal insulators, not easily letting heat pass through them. Conduct experiments and watch how the temperature changes. Record your results on a table and make your own conclusions, some materials help keep things warm while others make them go cold quick. Find out if metal, cardboard and polystyrene are good at thermal insulation or have good thermal conductivity by checking out this heat transfer activity.

## miércoles, 8 de marzo de 2017

### BIOSPHERE

5º . Unit 6.          Biosphere.
The biosphere is defined as the sphere or area around the planet Earth where life exists. This zone of life is vast. Most lifeforms live on or near the surface of Earth. However, some live deep within the hydrosphere (oceans, lakes and streams), while others thrive in the depths of the lithosphere (solid portion of Earth). For this reason, mapping the exact borders of the biosphere is quite challenging.
The biosphere is all about life. Physical geographers use the term biosphere to describe our living world. All of the microbes, plants, and animals can be found somewhere in the biosphere. The biosphere extends to the upper areas of the atmosphere where birds and insects can be found. It also reaches to dark caves deep in the ground or to the bottom of the ocean at hydrothermal vents. The biosphere extends to any place that life of any kind might exist.

FOOF CHAINS AND WEBS

Food Chain

Food Chain

Every living plant and animal must have energy to survive. Plants rely on the soil, water, and the sun for energy. Animals rely on plants as well as other animals for energy. In an ecosystem, plants and animals all rely on each other to live. Scientists sometimes describe this dependence using a food chain or a food web. Food Chain A food chain describes how different organisms eat each other, starting out with a plant and ending with an animal. For example, you could write the food chain for a lion like this: grass ---> zebra ---> lion The lion eats the zebra, which eats the grass.

The Food Chain
Every living thing needs energy in order to live. Everytime animals do something (run, jump) they use energy to do so.

Animals get energy from the food they eat, and all living things get energy from food. Plants use sunlight, water and nutrients to get energy (in a process called photosynthesis). Energy is necessary for living beings to grow.
A food chain shows how each living thing gets food, and how nutrients and energy are passed from creature to creature. Food chains begin with plant-life, and end with animal-life. Some animals eat plants, some animals eat other animals.

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# Loss of Biodiversity

The main cause of the loss of biodiversity can be attributed to the influence of human beings on the world’s ecosystem, In fact human beings have deeply altered the environment, and have modified the territory, exploiting the species directly, for example by fishing and hunting, changing the biogeochemical cycles and transferring species from one area to another of the Planet. The threats to biodiversity can be summarized in the following main points:
• Alteration and loss of the habitats
• Introduction of exotic species and genetically modified organisms
• Pollution
• Climate change
• Overexploitation of resources